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Title of Project Proposal: 

Improving Access to Clean and Safe Water for  Enkusero-Sampu Village in Kajiado, Kenya

Country of Implementation: Kenya

Project Duration: 12 months



3.1  Problem Definition:
A field assessment carried out by SANA on 15th June 2018 at Enkusero-Sampu village revealed that the estimated population of 500 (50 Households), suffers from a lack of clean and safe water supply. The community has undergone unheard human miseries due to constant droughts and unreliable rainfalls. Observation indicates that Enkusero-Sampu primary school within the area was closed between January- March 2018 due to lack of water, and only re-opened when the Government trucked water, and started a feeding programme in the school. During the rainy season, the community depends on streams in the area, which are seasonal, an indication that there in no constant water supply.

The community relies on water from a recent constructed borehole at IIngoori secondary school, 6km from the village. There are also ponds of stagnant water which are used by both human and animals. Thus people are generally at the mercy of their creator since the cleanliness of such waters is not assured, even though they indicate they use aluminum sulphate (Alum) and chlorine (water guard) to purify. Water supply through donkey carts or tankers is quite expensive, being Ksh 20/- per 20 litres container. The only permanent source of water is the borehole at the boys secondary school, 6km away from the village. A nearby private borehole (5km away) drilled by a company carrying out quarrying in the area is not functional, as the pump was removed after the quarry closed.

There are two secondary schools in the vicinity of the village – Ilngoori boys (250 students), 6km away, and Kimuga Girls (260 students), about 9km away. The primary school, Enkusero Sampu (358 students) is within the village. A health facility is located 8km from the village.

3.2  Project Idea:
The project idea is to improve access to clean and safe water for rural community at Enkusero-Sampu village through sinking of borehole. There are two feasible options for the use of the water supply system: 1) to supply water as a point source with storage facility; 2) to extend through reticulation the water supply of the borehole to 4 cluster households and the primary school in the village. There will also be animal watering trough to serve the livestock.

There will be a Village Water Management Committee that will ensure full participation of community at different stages of the project. SANA (the implementing organization) will help establish the project committee that will oversee the planning and implementation phases. The organization will get the boreholes drilling company and water pump supply company; it will also coordinate the entire project by providing technical advice from the experts.


3.3. Project Implementation:
This type of project has already been implemented in a number of rural districts of Kenya. Thus SANA, in partnership with the stakeholders is ready to implement the project in Enkusero-Sampu Village. 

Step I: Preparation

SANA will facilitate the formation of project committee that shall be composed of the Chairman (coordinator), Secretary (community mobilizer) and Treasurer (project financial manager) and project evaluator. The project committee will make necessary plans for initialization of the project and the appointed site. (1 month) 

Step II: Community Mobilization and Organization

SANA officials will spearhead the mobilization of community members of Enkusero-Sampu village area. This will be realized through involvement of the community elders, local assistant chief, school head teacher, school chairman and area leaders (2 months) 

Step III: Planning of the operations

Preparation of tender invitations from interested and eligible firms to carry out hydro-geophysical survey and drilling of a borehole, and supply of solar water pump and other water supply construction materials (pipes, storage tanks and other accessories); monitoring of project activities. (2 months) 

Step IV Project Activities Implementation

Carry out the borehole drilling, installation of the solar pump, construction of the water supply components (storage tank, rising and distribution pipelines, water kiosk and stand pipes, and animal watering trough), and trainings on management, operations and maintenance, hygiene and sanitation, and income generating activities. (6 months) 

Step V: Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation

Carrying out of implementation monitoring and the summative evaluation of the project to find out whether the objectives were met. (1 month)

3.4. Innovation:

The project idea proposed by SANA is a replicated one. It has been used in many rural districts of Kenya. Boreholes that use solar pumps have proved to be cheaper than those which use electricity or wind. Bearing in mind that the area has abundant sunlight throughout the year, and is not connected to electricity grid, it is only right and fitting to employ simple and renewable energy options for pumping water in the project. As such, Enkusero-Sampu village water project will employ solar water pump which is economical and sustainable.

However, the project idea is innovative on the following grounds: 

Beneficiary group: The inhabitants of Enkusero-Sampu village have had a share of miseries. They are victims of long dry spells; they keep on wandering looking for water and pastures for their livestock. 

Geographic area: Enkusero-Sampu village area lies in a remote area of Olosoibor sub-location, Intashat location of Olepolos District, Kajiado County of Kenya. It is an area that is characterized by constant droughts. People keep on wondering from place to place looking for water and pasture.


3.5. Community Participation and Involvement:
SANA will involve the community participation in the following ways:

¨       Contribution of land by Enkusero-Sampu village Community

¨       Clearing the project components sites and digging of water pipeline trenches and animal watering troughs

¨       Educating the community members and the school children on safe use of water, sanitation and hygiene

¨       Establish Village Water Committee that will ensure the sustainability of the project

3.6. Expected Results:

The benefits of the project lie not only in providing clean and safe water to Enkusero-Sampu village but also in the following:

¨       Improving the villagers’ health standards through provision of clean and safe water

¨       Providing water for livestock

¨       Providing sanitation facilities and hygiene promotion

¨       Improving nutrition: The villagers will be able to practice horticulture farming using water from the borehole. The water will be used to grow vegetables that can be used to substitute their diet which is predominantly meat.

¨       Improvement of environment: the borehole water is also intended to be used in watering tree nursery to be set up at the primary school that is meant to provide the villagers with trees and fruit tree seedlings..

¨       The project will also serve as a prototype to be replicated in other neighbouring villages in the district and County

3.7. Measurability:

SANA with the help of a group of evaluators will form focus groups from the Intashat location of Olepolos District who will be used to find out whether the project has been able to serve their needs of getting clean and safe water. They will conduct a survey detailed to establish the extent to which people of Enkusero-Sampu village area have been able to access clean and safe water will also be conducted. The data collected shall be analysed quantitatively.

SANA will give report to relevant bodies. Strategic plan shall be drawn depending on the recommendations given in the report.

SANA expects to reach about 500 people and 4,000 animals within a period of 1 year. This number is expected to increase, as more people may be attracted to settle in the surrounding areas and thus, there is already a foreseen need that the community might need more sources of clean water.

The interventions will ultimately improve the reliability of the water sources during subsequent droughts and therefore reduce the vulnerability of populations. It will raise awareness for better hygiene practices and some other actions will translate into enhanced management of water resources. It is thus expected to enormously improve women and children’s health in the target rural areas


3.8. Sustainability

The sustainability of Enkusero-Sampu village water project will be based on the following:

¨       Contribution from the community members. SANA will mobilize the community to form a committee that will oversee the overall running of the project. This committee will also be responsible for collecting membership and regular fee from the community members for the water use.

¨       Water sales: The Enkusero-Sampu village community will be organized to sell water at the communal kiosk, and also to water vendors in the area.

¨       Horticulture farming: SANA in partnership with school management will train the community on horticulture farming. Money raised from the sales will help in the maintenance of the project.

¨       Afforestation program: SANA will initiate a tree seedlings nursery. The community will be supplied with these trees at a fee. The money raised will help in sustaining the project.

¨       Animal Watering: A fee charged from the nomadic pastoral community for watering the animals.

¨       Public and private partnership: SANA will support the community to form linkages and partnership with both public and private sectors to generate resources to sustain the project.

¨       Local partnership: SANA in partnership with the local partner (school) will manage relationships with the government, educate local communities and enlist the support of community leaders.

3.9. Replicability and Scaling-Up:
The project idea I has already been replicated in many districts in Kenya. However, SANA intends to scale up the project idea to the neighboring areas and even the vast Maasai range land if the following conditions exist:

¨       Funding: If SANA is funded by either local or international organizations, it will be able to initiate other similar projects in the neighboring communities.

¨       Government support: If the County government ministry of water and natural resources supports SANA, similar projects will be initiated.

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